Minggu, 18 November 2007

CITRA PENGINDERAAN JAUH

Menurut Hornby (Sutanto, 1994:6), citra merupakan gambaran yang terekam oleh kamera atau oleh sensor lainnya. Sedangkan Simonett mengutarakan dua pengertian tentang citra yaitu :
“The counterpart of an object produced by the reflection or refraction of light when focussed by a lens or a mirror.
Gambaran obyek yang dibuahkan oleh pantulan atau pembiasan sinar yang difokuskan oleh sebuah lensa atau sebuah cermin.
The recorded representation (cinnibkt as a ogiti unage) if object produced by optical, electro-optical, opical mechanical, or electrical means. It is generally used when the EMR menited or reflected from a scene is not directly recpded pm film.
Gambaran rekaman suatu obyek (biasanya berupa gambaran pada foto) yang dibuahkan dengan cara optik, elektro-optik, optik mekanik, atau elektronik. Pada umumnya ia digunakan bila radiasi elektromagnetik yang dipancarkan atau dipantulkan dari suatu obyek tidak langsung direkam pada film.”
(Sutanto, 1994:6)

Benda yang terekam pada citra dapat dikenali berdsarkan ciri yang terekam oleh sensor. tiga ciri yang terekam oleh sensor adalah ciri spasial, ciri temporal, dan ciri spektral.
Ciri spasial, adalah ciri yang berkaitan dengan ruan, meliputi : bentuk, ukuran, bayangan, pola, tekstur, situs, dan asosiasi.
Ciri Temporal, adalah ciri yang terkait dengan umur benda atau waktu saat perekaman.
Ciri Spektral, adalah ciri yang dihasilkan oleh tenaga elektromagnetik dengan benda, yang dinyatakan dengan rona dan warna.

Citra dapat dibedakan atas citra foto (photographic image) atau foto udara dan citra nonfoto (non-photographic image). Perbedaan antara citra foto dan citra non foto dapat dijelaskan dengan tabel berikut :


Citra foto dapat dibedakan berdasarkan :
a. Sistem wahana :
- foto satelit : foto yang dibuat dari perspektif satelit
- foto udara : foto yang dibuat dari persepektif pesawat udara atau balon udara
b. Spektrum elektromagnetik yang digunakan :

- Ultraviolet
- ortokromatik
- pankromatik
- inframerah warna asli (
true color) dan
- inframerah warna palsu (
false color).
c. Kemiringan sumbu kamera terhadap permukaan bumi ;
- Foto vertikal atau Foto tegak (
Orto photograph), yaitu citra foto yang dibuat dengan sumbu kamera tegak lurus terhadap objek di permukaan bumi
- Foto miring atau Foto condong (Oblique Photograph), yaitu citra foto yang dibuat dengna sumbu kamera membentuk sudut terhadap objek permukaan bumi.
d. Jenis kamera
- foto dengan kamera tunggal
- kamera jamak (menggunakan lebih dari satu kamera)
e. Warna yang digunakan
- Foto warna semu, misalnya vegetasi yang berwarna hijau nampak berwarna merah karena menggunakan sinar ultraviolet.- foto warna asli, misalnya vegetasi yang berwarna hijau akan terlihat hijau seperti objeknya.
Citra nonfoto dapat dibedakan:
a. Berdasarkan wahana yang digunakan
- Citra dirgantara
- Citra satelit
b. Berdasarkan Spektrum elektromagnetik yang digunakan
- citra radar
- citra inframerah termal
- citra gelombang mikro
c. Berdasarkan sensor yang digunakan
- citra tunggal
- citra multispektral

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